E-ISSN 2149-388X | ISSN 2149-0430
 

Letter to the Editor 


Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic

Abayomi Oyeyemi Ajagbe, Michael Kunle Ajenikoko.

Abstract
The fundamentals for research and development in science over many decades had been animal models. Features attributed to these models are high-cost implications, difficult, and sometimes cannot be extrapolated to human in vivo conditions. However, the possibility of changes in the international scientific cases and the Three Rs principle (Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement) has assisted the evolution of substitute techniques to the utilization of mammals.COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated social and ethical quandary coupled with the phobia of using an animal for research as the genesis of COVID-19 is regarded as zoonotic (from animals such as bats, snakes, mammals) as the carrier of this virus causing disease and Africa as a continent is not left out. This article advocates the replacement of animal models with non-animal models in Africa as studies has disclosed the quality of research done with these non-animal models such as Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), the zebrafish (Danto rerio), and the nematode worm(Caenorhabditis elegans), and as innovative for research and development in Africa which has been adopted by developed countries. We recommended prolific technical knowledge and ample training in the use of these non-animal models. Education, training, and propagation of information on the three Rs to researchers, industries, academia, the scientific community, and regulatory agencies are advocated.

Key words: Research, Three Rs, biomedical model, COVID-19, Pandemics.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ajagbe AO, Ajenikoko MK. Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. Ulutas Med J. 2021; 7(4): 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725


Web Style

Ajagbe AO, Ajenikoko MK. Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. https://www.ulutasmedicaljournal.com/?mno=103338 [Access: April 05, 2022]. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ajagbe AO, Ajenikoko MK. Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. Ulutas Med J. 2021; 7(4): 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ajagbe AO, Ajenikoko MK. Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. Ulutas Med J. (2021), [cited April 05, 2022]; 7(4): 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



Harvard Style

Ajagbe, A. O. & Ajenikoko, . M. K. (2021) Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. Ulutas Med J, 7 (4), 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



Turabian Style

Ajagbe, Abayomi Oyeyemi, and Michael Kunle Ajenikoko. 2021. Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. THE ULUTAS MEDICAL JOURNAL, 7 (4), 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



Chicago Style

Ajagbe, Abayomi Oyeyemi, and Michael Kunle Ajenikoko. "Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic." THE ULUTAS MEDICAL JOURNAL 7 (2021), 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ajagbe, Abayomi Oyeyemi, and Michael Kunle Ajenikoko. "Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic." THE ULUTAS MEDICAL JOURNAL 7.4 (2021), 214-216. Print. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ajagbe, A. O. & Ajenikoko, . M. K. (2021) Replacing Animal Models In Science by Non-Animal Alternatives In Africa: Future Direction After Covid-19 Pandemic. THE ULUTAS MEDICAL JOURNAL, 7 (4), 214-216. doi:10.5455/umj.20210729022725